After an early Soviet canonization as a communist playwright, it seems Jean-Paul Sartre, one of the most prominent post-war continental thinkers, leaves Russia, a significant Other in his work and thinking, a legacy quite different from the one he leaves France. However, apart from his earliest reception, this has received very little attention in academia. This thesis aims at forming the first extensive inquiry into Sartre’s Russian reception in translation for the period 1955-2005. We will investigate both the translations and their context as spaces of reception. We will lead a comparative inquiry into Sartre’s Soviet and post-Soviet reception, in which we will consider the contextual dynamics influencing his translation, the specific conditions for the production and reception of translated literature in the Soviet and Russian contexts, and substantiate the whole with textual analyses of the translations. This way, we aim to not only uncover the understudied reception of Sartre in the Soviet Union and Russia, but also to add to the literature on the translation of Western authors and literature both under the Soviet regime and in post-Soviet Russia. Moreover, we will contribute to the almost non-existing body of literature comparing Soviet and post-Soviet translation practices, bringing new insights to the field as to the seemingly lasting impact of Soviet translation practices in the post-Soviet era.